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Both authors contributed equally to this article. We are grateful to Mary McKernan McKay and Robert B. Hudson for their comments and suggestions. An either version of this manuscript was presented at the annual meeting of the Council on Social Work Education, Washington, D. C., February 1996.

[1] Since the shift toward deinstitutionalization of juvenile delinquents over the last 2 decades, the juvenile justice system in effect considers families the main intervention system for juvenile delinquents who are not institutionalized. See Katherine Wood, "The Family of the Juvenile Delinquent," Juvenile and Family Court Journal 41 (1990): 19-37; and Magda Stouthamer- Loeber and Rolf Loeber, "Parents as Intervention Agent for Children with Conduct Problems and Juvenile Offenders," Family Perspectives in Child and Youth Service 11 (1988): 127- 48.

[2] Ludwig L. Geismar and Katherine Wood, Family and Delinquency: Resocializing the Young Offender (New York: Human Science Press, 1986). Research on family processes and delinquency tends to be in both criminology and psychology journals, whereas research on family-based interventions for antisocial and delinquent youth comes primarily from psychology.

[3] Richard D. Sutphen, "A Needle in the Haystack: Trying to Find Juvenile Justice Content in the Social Work Literature" (paper presented at the Council on Social Work Education annual program meeting, Washington, D. C., February 1996.

[4] Patrick H. Tolan, Nancy G. Guerra, and Phillip G. Kendall, "Introduction to Special Section: Prevention and Prediction of Antisocial Behavior in Children Adolescents," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63 (1995): 515-17, quote on 515.

[5] American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1995); Dennis R. Moore and Judy L. Arthur, "Juvenile Delinquency," in Handbook of Child Psychopathology, ed. Thomas Ollendick and Richard Hersen (New York: Plenum, 1980), pp. 197-217; Patrick H. Tolan, Nancy G. Guerra, and Philip C. Kendall, "A Developmental Ecological Perspective on Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents: Toward a Unified Risk and Intervention Framework," Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63 (1995): 579-84. One of the implication of the mix of psychopathology and law in the determination of antisocial behavior is that different assessment and service systems may be involved in responses to the same adolescent conduct. See Kathleen Malloy, "Juvenile Justice: Once and Future Gatekeeper for a System of Care," in Children's Mental Health Services, ed. Leonard Bickman and Debra J. Rog (Newbury Park, Carif.: Sage, 1995), pp. 145-67; also see Moor and Arthur above.

[6] Official delinquency refers to being labeled an offender by the juvenile justice system. Although a large proportion of adolescents claim they have committed at least one "actionable offence," only about 5 percent are arrested for crimes, and fewer than one in 500 adolescents are actually in custody at any time because of delinquency (Kathleen Maguire and Anne L. Pastore, eds., Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1994, US. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics [Washington, D.C.:U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994]). Much controversy surrounds the distinction between official and self-respond delinquency. Review of this issue can be found in Michael Hindelang, Travis Hirschi and Joseph Weiss, Measuring Delinquency (Beverly Hills, Calif,: Sage, 1991); and in Larry Siegel and Joseph J. Senna, Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice and Law (St. Paul Minn.: West Publishing, 1994) .

[7] Sheldon Glueck and Eleanor Glueck, Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950); William McCord and Joan McCord, Origin of Crime: A New Evaluation of the Cambridge Somerville Study (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959): F. Ivan Nye, Family Relationships and Delinquent Behavior (New York: Wiley, 1958).

[8] Social control theory is explain in Nye (n. 7 above); and in Travis Hirschi, Causes of Delinquency (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969). Social learning theory can be found in Gerard R. Patterson, Coercive Family Process (Eugene, Orge.: Castalia, 1982); Gerard R. Patterson, John Reid, and Thomas Dishion, Antisocial Boys (Eugene, Orge.: Castalia, 1992). Patterson and his associates at the Oregon Social Learning Center have conducted 3 decades of research studying family processes and antisocial behavior in children. His ongoing research program includes the Oregon Youth Study, a longitudinal study of childhood progression toward delinquency.

[9] Stephen Cernkovich and Peggy Giordano, "Family Relationships and Delinquency," Criminology 25(1987): 295-321; Geismar and Wood (n. 2 above); Scott W. Henggler. Delinquency in Adolescence (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1989); Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above) ; Robert Sampson and John Laub, Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Joseph H. Rankin and L. Edward Wells, "The Effects of Parental Attachments and Direct Controls on Delinquency," Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 27 (1990) 140-65. Certain parent characteristics of traits, as well as specific parenting practices, place children at risk for antisocial behavior and delinquency. For example, parental criminality, even when the parent is not in the home, is a moderate predictor of delinquency. See Rolf Loeber and Magda Stouthamer-Loeber, "Family Factors as Correlate and Predictors of Juvenile Conduct Problems and Delonquency," Crime and Justice: Annual Review of Research, vol 7. Ed. Michael Tonry and Norval Morris (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 29-149; and Henri Giller, Juvenile Delinquency: Trends and Perspectives (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983). Having an antisocial parent also increase delinquency risk. One link between antisocial parents and similar behavior in their children may be deficiencies in parenting skills; there may be other links, including biological ones.

[10] Patterson, Coercive Family Process (n. 8 above) ; L. Edward Wells and John H. **kin, "Direct Parental Controls and Delinquency,"Criminology 26(1988): 263-87.

[11]  Patterson, Coercive Family Process (n. 8 above) ; Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above) ; Gerard R. Patterson, "Developmental Changes in Antisocial Behavior," in Aggression and Violence throughout the Life Span, ed, Ray de V. Peters, Robert J. McMahon, and Vernon L. Quinsey (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1989), pp. 55-82.

[12] For examples of cross-sectional studies, see Grace M. Barnes and Michael P. Farrell, "Parental Support and Control as Predictors of Adolescent Drinking, Delinquency, and Related Behaviors," Journals of Marriage and the Family 54 (1992): 763-76; Cernkovich and Giordano (n. 9 above); Harris Goldstein. "Parental Composition, Supervision and Conduct Problems in Youths 12 to 17 Years Old." Journals of the American Academy of Child Psychology 23 (1984): 679-84; Rankin and Wells, "The Effects of Parental Attachments" (n. 9 above). For longitudinal studies, see Sampson and Laub (n. 9 above); and Joan McCord, "Some Child-Rearing Antecedents of Criminal Behavior in Adolescent Men," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9 (1979): 1477-86. For review of family delinquency studies, see James Snyder and Gerald R. Patterson, "Family Interaction and Delinquent Behavior," in Handbook of Juvenile Delinquency, ed. Herbert C. Quay (Ney York: Wiley, 1987); and Leober and Stouthanmer-Loeber, "Family Factors as Correlates" (n. 9 above). The latter is a comprehensive metanalysis of studies on delinquency, juvenile conduct problems, and all aspects of family life.

[13] Snyder and Patterson (n. 12 above).

[14] The lack of consistency in studies of the relationaship between parental control and delinquency is at least partly due to the difficulty in measuring discipline. See Marvin D. Krohn, Susan B. Stern. Terence P. Thornberry, and Sung Joon Jang, "The Influence of Family Process on the Initiation of Delinquency and Drug Use," Journal of Quantitative Criminology 8 (1990): 287-315: Gerard R. Patterson and MagdaStouthamer-Loeber, "The Correlation of Family Management Practice and Delinquency," Child Development 55 (1984) 1299-1307. Researchers have found more cultural variation in discipline practices compared with attachment processes, which may also contribute to less consistent findings across studies.

[15] Parent-child affiliative bonds have been characterized in many ways, including warmth support, attachment, affection, and involvement. Although the term "attachment" has been much used in the criminology literature, alternative terms may be more appropriate in this context because of the rather specific meaning of attachment in child development literature.

[16] Hirschi (n. 8 above) .

[17] For cross-sectional studies, see Cernkovich and Giordano(n. 9 above); Walter Gove and Robert Crutchfield, "The Family and Juvenile Delinquency," Sociological Quarterly 23 (1982): 301-19; Hirschi(n. 8 above) ; Krohn et al (n. 14 above) : and Joseph H. Rankin and Edward L. Wells, "Social Control, Broken Homes and Delinquency," in Varieties of Criminology: Readings from a Dynamic Discipline. ed. Gregg Barak (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994). For longitudinal studies, see MacCord and MacCord (n. 7 above) ; Carolyn A. Smith and Marvin D. Krohn, "Delinquency and Family Life among Male Adolescents: The Role of Ethnicity," Journal of Youth and Adolescence 24 (1994): 69-93; Susan B. Stern and Carolyn A. Smith, "Family Process in an Ecological Context," Social Service Review 69 (1995): 703-31; and Donald J. West and David P. Farrington, Who Becomes Delinquent? [London: Heinemann, 1973) .

[18] Patterson, Reid and Dishion (n. 8 above).

[19] James F. Alexander, "Defensive and Supportive Communication in Normal and Deviant Families," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 40 (1973): 223-31; Cindy L. Hanson, Scott W. Henggeler, William F. Haelele, and Douglas J. Rodick, "Demographic, Individual, and Family Relationship Correlates of Serious and Repeated Crimes among Adolescents and Their Siblings," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 52, no. 4 (1994): 52-38; E. Mavis Hetherington, R. Stouwie, and E. H. Ridberg, "Patterns of Family Interaction and Child Rearing Attitudes Related to Three Dimensions of Juvenile Delinquency," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 77 (1971): 160-76 Hirschi (n. 8 above).

[20]  MacCord (n. 12 above); also see (n. 7 above).

[21] Patrick H. Tolan and M. Ellen Mitchell, "Families and the Therapy of Antisocial and Delinquent Behavior," Journal of Psychotherapy and the Family 6 (1989): 29-48.

[22] Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber, "Family Factors as Correlates," (n. 9 above)

[23] Cathy Spatz Wisdom, "Childhood Victimization and Risk for Adolescent Problem Behavior," in Adolescent Problem Behaviors, ed. Michael E. Lamb and Robert Ketterlinus (New York: Erlbaum. 1994).

[24] Carolyn Smith and Terence P. Thornberry, "The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Involvement in Delinquency," Criminology 33 (1995): 451-81. In addition, Cathy Wisdom finds that the relationship between maltreatment and delinquency seems to hold for different types of maltreatment; for example, neglect is at least as associated with delinquency as physical abuse. A problem arises, however, in separating the effect of punitive discipline from neglect or the absence of warmth and support that often accompanies it. See Cathy Spatz Wisdom, "Childhood Victimization and Risk for Delinquency," in Adolescent Stress: Causes and Consequences, ed. Mary Ellen and Susan Gore (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1991), pp. 201-22.

[25] Cathy Spatz Wisdom, "Child Abuse, Neglect, and Violent Criminal Behavior," Criminology 27 (1989): 251-71.

[26] For example, Sampson and Laub (n. 9 above).

[27] John Agnew, "Physical Punishment and Delinquency: A Research Note," Youth and Society 15 (1983): 225-36; McCord and McCord (n. 7 above).

[28] Ann Laybourn, "Traditional Strict Working Class Parenting: An Undervalued System," British Journal of Social Work 16 (1986): 625-44.

[29] Peggy G. Giordano, Stephen A. Cernkivich, and Ann De Marris, "The Family and Peer Relations of Black Adolescents," Journal of Marriage and the Family] 55(1993): 277-87.

[30] Ronald L. Simons, Christine Johnson, and Rand D. Conger, "Harsh Corporal Punishment versus Quality of Parental Involvement as an Explanation of Adolescent Maladjustment," Journal of Marriage and the Family 56 (1994): 591-607.

[31] Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above). These authors also suggest that findings from their research program offer some support for the causal status of parenting practices in antisocial behavior but caution that many strong and replicated tests are needed before concluding that poor parenting practices are the primary cause.

[32] Snyder and Patterson (n. 12 above).

[33] Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber, "Family Factors as Correlates," (n. 9 above).

[34] Anne-Marie Ambert, The Effect of Children on Parents (New York: Haworth, 1992); Hugh Lyton, "Child and Parent Effects in Boy's Conduct Behavior: A Reinterpretation," Developmental Psychology26 (1990): 683-97.

[35] Russell A. Barkley, "The Families of ADHD Children," in Attention-Defict-Hyperactivity-Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment, ed. Russell A. Barkley (New York: Guilford, 1990), pp. 130-68.

[36]  Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above); Patterson, Bank, and Stoolmiller demonstrated that earlier child antisocial behavior brought about increased disruptions in later parent discipline and monitoring, even after the contribution of prior parenting practices had been controlled. Gerald Patterson, Lew Bank, and Mike Stoolmiller, "The Preadolescent Contributions to Disrupted Family Process," in From Childhood to Adolescence: A Transitional Period, ed. Raymond Montemayor, Gerald R. Adams, and Thomas P. Gullota (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1990), pp. 107-33.

[37] Avshalom Caspi and Glen H. Elder, Jr., "Emergent Family Patterns: The Intergenerational Construction of Problem Behavior and Relations,"
and Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas Dishion , "Multilevel Family Process Models: Traits, Interactions, and Relationships," both in Relationships within Families: Mutual Influence, ed. Robert A. Hinde and Joan Stevenson-HInde (Oxford: Clarendon, 1988). Thomas J. Sishin, Gerald R. Patterson, and Kate A. Kavanagh, "An Experimental Test of the Coercion Model," in Preventing Antisocial Behavior, Joan McCord and Richard E. Tremblay (New York: Guilford, 1992), pp. 253-82.

[38]  Terence P. Thornberry, "Toward an Interactional Theory of Delinquency," Criminology 25 (1987): 863-91.

[39] Terence P. Thornberry, Alan J. Lizotte, Marvin D. Krohn, Margaret Franworth, and Sung Joon Jang, "Testing Interaction Theory: An Examination of Reciprocal- Causal Relationships among the Family, School, and Delinquency," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 82 (1991): 3-45.

[40] Sung Joon Jang and Carolyn Smith, "A Test of Reciprocal Causal Relationships among Parental Supervision, Affective Ties and Delinquency," Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency (in press).

[41] Ibid.; Thornberry et al. (n. 39 above); also see Robert Agnew, "Adolescent Resources and Delinquency," Criminology 28 (1990): 535-65.

[42] James Garbarino, "The Human Ecology of Child Maltreatment: A Conceptual Model for Research," Journal of Marriage and the Family48 (1977): 721-35; Vonnie C. McLoyd, "The Impact of Economic Hardship on Black Families and Children: Psychological Distress, Parenting, and Socioemotional Development," Child Development 61 (1990): 311-46.

[43] Robert Sampson, "Family and Community Level Influence on Adolescent Delinquency in the Inner City of Chicago" ( paper presented at the 60th annual meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, March 1993).

[44]  McCord and McCord (n. 7 above).

[45] Indirect and direct effects of neighborhood on delinquency were also studied by Simcha-Fagan and Schwartz by looking at possible individual-level adolescent mediating variables. They examined family characteristics as well but focused on structural family variables rather than family processes. See Joseph E. Schwartz, "Neighborhood and Delinquency: An Assessment of Contextual Effects," Criminology 24 (1986): 667-95.

[46] Stern and Smith(n. 17 above).

[47] Both the Rochester and Pittsburgh studies were funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Program on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. Both assessed family management practices and neighborhood using a common core of measures.

[48] Faith Peebles, "Working against the Odds: Parents Neighborhoods, and Juvenile Delinquency," (Ph. D. Diss., University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Social Work, 1991). Neighborhoods were characterized as "underclass" based on a high concentration of factors such as family poverty, families on public assistance, single-mother families, male jobless, and out-of-wedlock birth.

[49] Claudia C. Coulton, "Effects of Neighborhood on Families and Children: Implications for Services," in Children and Their Families in Big Cities: Strategies for Service Reform, ed. Alfred Kahn and Sheila Kamerman, Cross-National Studies Research Program (New York: Colombia University, School of Social Work, 1996), pp. 87-120.

[50] Data forthcoming the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Adolescent Development among Youth in High-Risk Settings should enhance our understanding of how neighborhoods affect family management and adolescent behavior, including the parenting strategies of parents who do successfully rear children in disadvantaged neighborhoods. See Frank. F. Furstenberg, Families of the Inner-City and Managing Adolescent Success in Philadelphia Neighborhoods ( in press).

[51] David P. Farrington "Epidemiology", in Quey ed. (n. 12 above). Family economic hardship is assessed in various ways in different studies, including low family income, low social class, job instability, income loss, social dependence, and community-level poverty. In many studies, a construct composed of several economic indicators is used.

[52] Robert E. Lazelere and Gerald R. Patterson, "Parental Management: Mediator of the Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Early Delinquency," Criminology 28 (1990): 301-23.

[53] Rand Conger and his colleagues at the Iowa Center for Family Studies are associated with this impressive program of empirical research. Rand D. Conger and Glen B. Elder, Families in Troubled Times: Adapting to Change In Rural America (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994); and Jaques D. Lempers, Dania Clark-Lempers, and Ronald L. Simons, "Economic Hardship, Parenting, and Distress in Adolescence," Child Development 60 (1990): 25-39.

[54] Glen H. Elder, Jaquelynne S. Eccles, Monika Arbelt, and Sara Lord, "Inner- City parents under Economic Pressure: Perspectives on the Strategies of Parenting," Journal of Marriage and the Family 57(1995): 771-84. In studying inner-city parents under economic pressure, these researchers found that such pressure affected African American's parental efficacy both directly and indirectly through its effects on depression. For European Americans, parental efficacy was only affected trough the effects of economic pressure on depression. The relationship between efficacy beliefs and management strategies was stronger for African-American parents, although levels of efficacy were similar in both groups.

[55] Gerald R. Patterson, "Stress: A Change Agent for Family Process," in Stress, Coping, and Development in Children, Norman Garmezy and Michael Rutter (New York: McGraw-Hill, 19983); Patterson, Coercive Family Process (n. 8 above) ; Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above).

[56] Jean E. Dumas, "Indirect Influence of Material Social Context on Mother-Child Interaction: A Setting Events Analysis," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 14 (1986): 205-16; Robert G. Wahler and Jean E. Dumas, "Stimulus Class Determinants of Mother-Child Interchanges in Multidistressed Families: Assessment and Intervention" in The Prevention of Delinquent Behavior, John D. Burchard and Sara N. Burchard (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1987), pp. 190-219.

[57] Stern and Smith (n. 17 above).

[58] Research from the child development field corroborates findings that mothers who experience more stressful life events are less nurturing toward their children and more restrictive and punitive in their control efforts. See, e.g., Marsha Weinraub and Barbara M. Wolf, "Effects of Stress and Social Supports on Mother-Child Interaction in Single-and-Two-Parent Families," Child Development 54 (1983): 1297-1311.

[59] Gerald R. Patterson and D. M. Capaldi, "Antisocial Parents: Unskilled and Vulnerable," in Family Transition ed. Phillip A. Cowan and E. Mavis Hetherington (Hillisdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1991), pp. 195-218.

[60] Garovin Webster-Stratton and Mary Hammond, "Maternal Depression and Its Relationship to Life Stress, Perceptions of Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Behaviors, and Child Conduct Problems," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 16 (1988): 299-315; Robert C. Pianta and Byron Egeland, "Life Stress and Parenting Outcomes in a Disadvantaged Sample: Results of the Mother-Child Interaction Project," Journal of clinical Child Psychology 16 (1990): 329-36; Niall Bolger, Anita De Longis, Ronald C. Kessler, and Elizabeth A. Schilling, "The Effects of Daily Stress on Negative Mood,"Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (1989): 808-18. Economically disadvantaged mothers also report higher levels of major life stresses and daily hassles than do comparison mothers. See Barbara S. Dohrenwend, "Social Status and Stressful Life Events," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28 (1973): 225-35; and Jerome R. Myers, Jacob J. Lindenthal, and Max R. Pepper, "Social Class, Life Events and Psychiatric Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study," Stressful Events: Their Nature and Effects: ed. Barbara S. Dohrenwend and Bruce P. Dohrenwend 編(New York: Wiley, 1974), pp. 191-206. The same is true for mothers of antisocial children. See Patterson, "Stress" (n. 55 above) ; Robert G. Wahler, "The Insular Mother: Her Problem in Parent-Child Treatment," Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 13, no. 2 (1980): 207-19: Robert G. Wahler, Gorden Leske, and E. S. Rogers, "The Insular Family: A Deviance Support System for Oppositional Children," Behavior System for Developmentally Disabled: I School and Environments, vol 1, ed. Leo Hamerlynck (Nee York: Brunner/Mazel, 1979), pp. 150-77.

[61] Geraldine Downey and James Coyne, "Children of Depressed Parents: An Integrative Review," Psychological Bulletin 108 (1990): 50-76.

[62] Rand D. Conger, Katherine J. Conger, Glen H. Elder, Frederick O. Lorenz, Ronald L. Simons, and Les B. Whitbeck, "A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys," Child Development 63 (1992) 526-41; Patterson, Reid, and Dishion(n. 8 above) ; Marion Forgatch, Gerald R. Patterson, and Matthew Skinner, "A Mediational Model for the Effects of Divorce on Antisocial Behavior in Boys" The Impact of Divorce, Single Parenting and Step-Parenting on Children, ed. E. Mavis Hetherington (Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1988), pp. 135-54.

[63]  Rand D. Conger, Gerald R. Patterson, and Xiaojia Ge, "It Takes Two Replicate: A Mediational Model for the Impacts of Parent's Stress on Adolescent Adjustment," Child Development 66 (1995) 80-97.

[64] Research on the effects of social support or social isolation comes primarily from the child development literature on support for mothers and their very young children or from child maltreatment research. For studies on support for young children, see Nancy D. Colletta, "Social Support and the Risk of Maternal Rejection by Adolescent Mothers," Journal of Psychology 109 (1981): 191-97; Keith A. Crnic, Mark T. Greenberg, Arlene T. Ragozin, Nancy Robinson, and Robert B Bashan, "Effects of Stress and Social Support on Mothers and Premature and Full-Term Infants," Child Development 54 (1983) 209-17. For child maltreatment research, see James Garbario, "A Preliminary Study of Some Ecological Correlates of Child Abuse: The Impact of Socioeconomic Stress on Mothers," Child Development 47 (1976) 178-85; Elizabeth Seagull, "Social Support and Child Maltreatment: A review of the Evidence," Child Abuse and Neglect 11 (1987): 41-52; and R. Jay Turner and William R. Avison, "Assessing Risk Factors for Problem Parenting: The Significance of Social Support," Journal of Marriage and the Family 47 (1985): 881-92.

[65] Wahler (n. 60 above).

[66] Dumas, "Indirect Influence of Maternal Social Context" (n. 56 above) ; Steven A. Szykula, C. Haydee Mas, Charles W. Turner, Jane Growley, and Thomas V. Sayger, "Maternal Social Supports and Prosocial Mother-Child Interactions," Journal of Family Psychology 5 (1991): 82-92; Wahler (n. 60 above); Wahler and Dumas, ""Stimulus Class Determinants of Mother-Child Interchanges," (n. 56 above).

[67] Moore and Arthur (n. 5 above).

[68] Stern and Smith (n. 17 above).

[69] Conger and Elder (n. 53 above).

[70] Sheldon Cohen and Thomas A. Wills, "Stress, Social Support, and the Buffering Hypohtesis," Psychological Bulletin 98 (1985): 310-57

[71] For reviews, see Geismar and Wood (n. 2 above);Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber, "Family Factors as Correlates" (n. 9 above); and L. Edward Wells and John H. Rankin, "Family and Delinquency: A Meta Analysis of the Impact of Broken Homes," Social Problems 38 (1991): 71-83.

[72] Wells and Rankin, "Family and Delinquency", (n. 71 above).

[73] Michael Rutter, "Family Discord and Conduct Disorder: Cause, Consequence or Correlate?" Journal of Family Psychology 8 (1994): 170-86.

[74] Sheppard G. Kellam, Margaret Ensminger, andRonald J. Turner, "Family Structure and the Mental Health of Children," Archives of General Psychiatry 34 (1977): 1012-22; and Sanford M. Dornbusch, Merrill J. Carlsmith, Steven J. Bushwall, Philip L. Ritter, Herbert Leiderman, Albert H. Hastorf, and Robert T. Gross, "Single Parents, Extended Households and the Control of Adolescents,"Child Development 56 (1985) 326-41, suggest that adolescents are at as much risk for deviant behavior living with two parents if one is a stepfather as are adolescents in single-parent homes. Also see Goldstein (n. 12 above); Laurence Steinberg, "Single Parents, Step-Parents, and the Susceptibility of Adolescents to Antisocial Peer Pressure," Child Development 58 (1987) 269-75.

[75] Smith and Krohn (n. 17 above).

[76] Lawrence Rosen, "Family and Delinquency: Structure or Function," Criminology 23(1985): 553-73.

[77] Joseph H. Rankin and Roger Kern, "Parental Attachments and Delinquency," Criminology 32(1994): 495-515.

[78] A special section, "Contexts of Interpersonal Conflict and Child Behavior," Journal of Family Psychology (Vol. 8, no. 2 [June 1994]) is devoted to this topic. Also see Paul Amato and Bruce Keith, "Parental Divorce and the Well-Being of Children: A Meta-analysis," Psychological Bulletin110 (1991): 26-46.

[79] Deborah M. Capaldi and Gerald R. Patterson, "Relation of Parental Transitions to Boy's Adjustment Problems: 1. A Linear Hypothesis, 2. Mothers as Risk for Transitions and Unskilled Parenting," Developmental Psychology 27 (1991): 489-504. This study also shed light on factors that may link antisocial parents with antisocial behavior in children. Mothers who were antisocial were likely to have more transitions and to have children with behavior problems.

[80] Bill Henry, Terrie Moffitt, Lee Robins, Felton Earls, and Phil Silve, "Early Family Predictors of Child and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Who Are the Mothers of Delinquents?" Criminal Behavior and Mental Health 3 (1993): 97-118.

[81] D. M. Ferguson, L. J. Horwood, and M. T. Linsky, "Family Change, Parental Discord, and Early Offending," Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 33 (1992): 1059-75.

[82] Rutter, "Family Discord and Conduct Disorder" (n. 73 above).

[83] Siegel and Senna (n. 6 above); Patrick H. Tolan and Rolf Loeber, "Antisocial Behavior," Handbook of Clinical Research and Practice, ed. Patrick H. Tolan and Bertram J. Cohler (New York: Wiley, 1993), pp. 307-31.

[84] Rachel J. Canter, "Family Correlates of Male and Female Delinquency, "Criminology 20(1982): 149-67; Cernkivich and Giordano (n. 9 above); Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber, "Family Factors as Correlates" (n. 9 above).

[85] Charles M. Borduin, Scott W. Henggeler, and Christopher M. Manley, "Conduct and Oppositional Disorders," Handbook of Child Psychopathology, ed. Vincent Van Hasselt and Michael Hersen (New York: Lexington, 1995), pp. 349-83.

[86] Rolf Loeber and Thomas Dishion, "Early Predictors of Male Delinquency: A Review," Psychological Bulletin 94 (1983): 68-99; Patrick H. Tolan, "Implications of Age of Onset for Delinquency Risk," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 15 (1987): 47-65.

[87] Social learning model is evaluated in Delbert S. Elliott, David Huizinga, and Scott Menard, Multiple Problem Youth: Substance Use and Mental Health Problems (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989); and the social development model is found in J. David Hawkins, Richard F. Catalano, Diane M. Morrison, Julie O'Donnell, Robert D. Abbott, and Edward L. Day, "The Seattle Social Development Project: Effects of First Four Years on Protective Factors and Problem Behaviors," ed. McCord and Tremblay (n. 37above). The coercion model is found in Patterson, Reid, and Deshion (n. 8 above). The multisystemic model is found in Scott W. Henggeler, Delinquency in Adolescence (n. 9 above). The interactional theory is found in Terence P. Thornberry, "Empirical Support for Interactional Theory: A Review of the Literature," Some Current Theories of Crime and Deviance, ed. David Hawkins (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1996). The developmental-ecological framework is in Tolan, Guerra, and Kendall (n. 5 above).

[88] For example of studies highlighting peer deviance, see Delbert S. Elliott, David Huizinga, and Suzanne S. Ageton, Explaining Delinquency and Drug Use (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1985). Lack of school success is discussed in Thornberry et al, (n. 39 above). Studies on early aggression and troublesomeness include Julie O'Donnell, J. David Hawkins, and Robert D. Abbott, " Predicting Serious Delinquency and Substance Use among Aggressive Boys," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63 (1995): 529-37. Studies that seeks to determine whether specific factors are related to delinquency at different ages of onset also find that family factors are more important for early onset antisocial children than for late starters, for whom peer and school influences may be more predominant. SeeRonald L. Simons, Chuy-In Wu, Rand D. Conger, and Frederick O. Lorenz, "Two Routes to Delinquency: Differences between Early and Late Starters in the Impact of Parenting and Deviant Peers," Criminology 32 (1994): 247-75 参照。

[89] Borduin, Henggeler, and Manley (n. 85 above).

[90] Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above).

[91] For a study on communication deficits among aggressive youth, see Jean E. Dumas, Elaine A. Blechman, and Ronald J. Prinz, "Aggressive Children and Effective Communication," Aggressive Behavior 20 (1994): 347-58. For study dealing with poor problem-solving skills, see Beverly Richard and Kenneth A. Dodge, "Maladjustment and Problem Solving in School Aged Children," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 50 (1982): 787-98. Also, for an overview of this topic, see Kenneth H. Rubin, Linda A. Bream, and Linda Rose-Krasner, "Social Problem Solving and Aggression in Childhood," The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression, ed. Debra J. Pepler and Kenneth H. Rubin (Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1991), pp. 219-48. Youth perceptions of aggression as a way to handle conflict and enhance self-esteem are discussed in Ronald G. Slaby and Nancy G. Guerra, "Cognitive Mediators of Aggression in Adolescent Offenders: 1. Assessment," Developmental Psychology 24 (1988): 580-88.

[92] Kenneth A. Dodge and Cynthia M. Frame, "Social Cognitive Biases and Deficits in Aggressive Boys," Child Development 53 (1982) 620-35; for further review, see Tolan and Loeber (n. 83 above).

[93] Slaby and Guerra (n. 91 above).

[94] Alan S. Gurman, David Kniskern, and William M. Pinsof, "Research on Marital and Family Therapy: Progress, Perspective, and Prospect," Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change, 3rd ed., Sol L. Garfield and Allen E. Bergin (New York: Wiley, 1986)、pp. 565-624; Alan E. Kazdin, Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents (Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey, 1985); John Reid, Gerald R. Patterson, "The Development of Antisocial Behavior Patterns in Childhood and Adolescence," European Journal of Personality 33 (1989): 107-19. Parents affected by contextual stressors are those least likely to benefit from training in family management skills or to maintain and treatment gains. This finding highlights the importance of designing and evaluating interventions that take into consideration contextual adversity.

[95] Even looking at preadolescence, there are age effects for parent training outcomes. Thomas J. Dishion and Gerald R. Patterson, "Age effects in Parent Training," Behavior Therapy 23 (1992): 719-29, found that parent training was equally effective for early- and middle-childhood aggressive, but parents of older children were more likely to drop out of treatment.

[96]  Thomas J. Dishion and David W. Andrews, "Preventing Escalation in Problem Behaviors with High-Risk Young Adolescents: Immediate and One-Year Outcomes," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 50 (1982): 787-98.

[97] Lew Bank, J. Hicks Marlowe, John B. Reid, Gerald R. Patterson, and Mark R. Weinrott, "A Comparative Evaluation of Parent Training Intervention for Families of Chronic Delinquents," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 14 (1986): 205-16. Patterson and Yoeger suggest reasons for Bank et al.'s finding that the comparison group had reduced arrests at follow-up, one of which includes the methodological issue that there is a general decrease in delinquency at age 16. Gerald R. Patterson and K. Yoerger, "Developmental Models for Delinquent Behavior," Mental Disorder and Crime, ed. Sheilagh Hodgkins (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage. 1993). This has implications for the design of future intervention studies on adolescent delinquency.

[98]  Gerald R. Patterson, Thomas J. Dishion and Patricia Chamberlain, "Outcomes and Methodological Issues Relating to Treatment of Antisocial Children," Handbook of Effective Psychotherapy, Thomas R. Giles (New York: Plenum, 1983), pp. 43-88.

[99]  Patricia Chamberlain, "A Comparative Evaluation of Specialized Foster Care for Serious Delinquent Youths: A First Step?Community Alternative," International Journal of Family Care 2 (1990): 21-36. For an overall description of TFC and ongoing research, see Patricia Chamberlain, Family Connections: A Treatment Foster Care Model for Adolescents with Delinquency (Eugene, Org.: Castalia, 1994).

[100] Brigitte S. Berger, "Multiproblem Family and the Community," From Children to Citizens,ed. James Q. Wilson and Glen C. Loury (New York: Spring-Verlag, 1987); Patterson, Coercive Family Process (n. above) .

[101] Peggy C. Giordano, "Confronting Control Theory' Negative Case," Theoretical Integration in the Study of Deviance and Crime , ed. Steven F. Messner, Marvin D. Krohn, and Alan E. Liska (Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1989), pp. 261-78.

[102]  Scott W. Henggeler and Charles M. Borduin, Family Therapy and Beyond: A Multisystemic Approach to Treating the Behavior Problems of Children and Adolescents (Pacifc Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1990); Arthur L. Robin and Sharon L. Foster, Negotiating Parent-Adolescent Conflict: A Behavioral- Family System Approach (New York: Guilford, 1989); Suzan B. Stern and Cassandra Clay, "Supporting Children and Families in a Caring Community, " Network Update (Battle Creek, Mich.: W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 1995).

[103]  Henggeler and Borduin (n. 102 above) , p. 234.

[104] Patricia Chamberlain, Gerald R. Patterson, John B. Reid, Marian S. Forgatch, and Katherine Kavanagh, "Observations of Client Resistance," Behavior Therapy 15 (1984): 144-55; Patricia Chamberlain and David Baldwin, "Client Resistance to Parent Training: Its Therapeutic Management ," Advances in School Psychology, ed. Thomas Kratochwill 編 (Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1988), pp. 131-71.

[105] Cole Barton, James F. Alexander, and Charles W. Turner, "Definitive Communications in Normal and Delinquent Families: The Impact of Context and Family Role," Journal of Family Psychology 1 (1988): 390-405.

[106] For a study on belief sets, see Patricia Vincent-Roehling and Arthur L. Robin, "Development and Validation of the Family Beliefs Inventory: A Measure of Unrealistic Belief among Parents and Adolescents, " Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 54 (1986): 693-97. For a discussion of clinical implications, see Robin and Foster (n. 102 above).

[107] Some research suggests that affective perspective taking (i.e., the ability to care about the other person's perspective) plays a more important role than cognitive perspective-taking in inhibiting aggression; therefore, the development of empathy may be an important compornent of delinquency intervention. See Jack Arbuthnot, Donald A. Gordon, and Gregory J. Jurkovic, "Personality," in Quey, ed. (n. 12 above), pp. 139-85.

[108] Henggeler and Borduin (n. 102 above); Moore and Arthur (n. 5 above); Jose Szapocznik, Angle Perez-Vidal, Andrew L. Brickman, Franklin H. Foote, Daniel Santisteban, Olga Hervis, and Willam M. Kurtines, "Engaging Adolescent Drug Abusers and Their Families in Treatment: A Strategic Structural Systems Approach," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56(1988): 552-57; Stern and Cray (n. 102 above).

[109] Robert G. Green, Nancy R. Vosler, and William R. Badger, "Reverberative Change: Family Therapy with Adolescent Probationers," Family Therapy16 (1989): 145-60.

[110] Patric H. Tolan and Nancy Guerra, "Prevention of Delinquency: Current Status and Issues," Applied and Preventive Psychology 3 (1994): 251-73.

[111] David C. Weikart and Lawrence J. Schweinhart, "High/Scope Preschool Program Outcomes," ed. McCord and Tremblay (n. 37 above).

[112] M. Chandler, "Egocentrism and Antisocial Behavior: The Assessment and Training of Social Perspective-Taking Skills," Developmental Psychology 9 (1973): 326-32.

[113] James F. Alexander and Bruce V. Parsons, "Short-Term Behavioral Intervention with Delinquent Families: Impact on Family Processes and Recidivism." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 81 (1973): 219-25; .Cole Barton, James F. Alexander, Holly Waldrom, C.W. Turner, and Janet Warburton, "Generalizing Treatment Effects of Functional Family Therapy: Three Replications," American Journal of Family Therapy 13 (1985): 16-26; Nancy C. Klein, James F. Alexander, and Bruce V. Parsons, "Impact of Family Systems Intervention on Recidivism and Sibling Delinquency: A Model of Primary Prevention and Program Evaluation," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 45(1977): 469-74. Younger siblings of delinquents who received FFT with their family were also less likely to themselves be adjudicated at 2-3-year follow-up than siblings in nontreated or alternative treatment families. Alexander and Parsons attribute this to the changes in family processes.

[114] Donald A. Gordon, Jack Arbuthnot, Kathryn E. Gustafsond, and Peter McGreen, "Home-Based Behavioral System Family Therapy with Disadvantaged Juvenile Delinquents," American Journal of Family Therapy 16 (1988): 243-55.

[115] Carolyn Smith and Bonnie Carlson, "Stress, Coping, and Resilience in Children and Youth," Social Service Review 71 (1997): 231-57; Widom, "Childhood Victimization and Risk for Adolescent Problem Behavior" (n. 23 above); David A. Wolfe, Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1987).

[116] James Garbarino, "Troubled Youth, Troubled Families: The Dynamics of Adolescent Maltreatment," Theory and Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect, ed. Dante Cicchetti and Vicki Carlson (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 685-.706

[117] See Raymond S. Starr, Darla J. McLean, and Daniel P. Keating, "Life Span Developmental Outcomes of Child Maltreatment," The Effect of
Child Abuse and Neglect, ed. Raymond S. Starr and David Wolfe (New York: Guilford, 1991), pp. 1-32. A history of abuse for institutionalized delinquent girls has been documented in some studies; e. g., Richard Dembo, Mark Derke, Lawrence La Voie, Scott Borders, Mark Washburne, and James Schmeidler, " Physical Abuse, Sexual Victimization and Illicit Drug Use: A Structural Analysis among High-Risk Adolescents," Journal of Adolescence 10 (1987): 13-33.

[118]  Rolf Loeber and Magda Stouthamer-Loeber, "Prediction," in Quay, ed. (n. 12 above), pp. 325-82.

[119] For a description of an adolescent anger-control model, see Eva Feindler and Randolph Ecton, Anger Control Training ( New York: Pergamon, 1987); for a family anger-control model, see Susan B. Stren, "Anger Management in Parent-Adolescent Conflict," American Journal of Family Therapy (in press).

[120] Patterson and Chamberlain found that parents who were mandated to accept treatment, along with depressed and anti social parents, were the most resistant to family management training. See Gerald R. Patterson and Patricia Chamberlain, "Treatment Process: A Problem at Three Levels," in The State of Art in Family Therapy Research: Controversies and Recommendations, ed. Lyman C. Wynne (New York: Family Process, 1988), pp. 189-226. The challenges of working with involuntary clients are insufficiently stressed in the social work intervention literature, but more resources are now available. Good overviews of strategies for working with involuntary families and clients can be found in Ronald H. Rooney, Strategies for Work with Involuntary Clients (New York: Columbia University Press, 1911), Andre Ivanoff, Betty J. Blythe, and Tony Tripodi, Involuntary Clients, and Social Work Practice: A Reserch-Based Approach (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994).

[121] Howard Liddle, "Conceptual and Clinical Dimensions of a Multi-Dimensional, Multi-Systems Engagement Strategy in Family-Based Adolescent Treatment," Psychotherapy 32 (1995): 39-54.

[122] J. David Hawkins and Mark W. Frazer, "Social Support Networks in Delinquency Prevention and Treatment," Social Support Networks and Informal Helping in the Human Services, ed. James K. Whittaker and James K. Garbarino (New York: Aldine. 1983).

[123] Jean Dumas, Child, Adult-Interactional and Socioeconomic Settings as Predictors of Parent Training Outcome,", Education and Treatment of Children7 (1984): 351-64; Jean Dumas and Robert G. Wahler, "Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Parent Training: Mother Insularity and Socioeconomic Disadvantage," Behavioral Assessment 5 (1983): 301-13; Gerald R. Patterson and Matthew J. Fleichman, "Maintenance of Treatment Effects: Some Considerations Concerning Family Systems and Follw-up Data," Behavior Therapy 10 (1979): 164-85; Wahler and Dumas, "Stimulus Class Determinants of Mother-Child Interchanges" (n. 56 above); Wahler, Leske, and Rogers (n. 60 above); Robert G. Wahler and Jean E. Dumas, "Attentional Problems in Dysfunctional Mother-Child Interactions: An Interbehavioral Model," Psychological Bulletin 105 (1989): 116-30; Carolyn Webster-Stratton, "Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Parent Training for Conduct-Disordered Children," Behavior Therapy 16 (1985): 223-43.

[124] Douglas Griest and Karen C. Wells,"Behavioral Family Therapy with Conduct Disorders in Children," Behavior Therapy 16 (1985): 223-43.

[125] Alan E. Kazdin, "Premature Termination from Treatment among Children Referred for Antisocial Behavior," Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 31 (1990): 415-25; Ronald J. Prinz and Gloria E. Miller, "Family-Based Treatment for Childhood Antisocial Behavior: Experiment Influence on Dropout and Engagement," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62 (1994): 645-50.

[126] George Holden, "Probing the Continuum of Effectiveness in Parent Training: Characteristics of Parents and Preschoolers," Journal of clinical Child Psychology 19 (1990): 2-8.

[127]  In a job security on marital and family relationships, Larson and associates found that the most requested family services were prevention or education oriented rather than therapy. Marital therapy, e.g., was low on the list of requested services, although marital enrichment groups topped the list. See Jeffrey H. Larson, Stephan M. Wilson, and Rochelle Beley, "The Impact of Job Insecurity on Marital and Family Relationships," Family Relations 43. This finding serves as a caution to remember the major disrupting effects of economic stress on marital relationships and to maintain a problem solving rather than a pathology-oriented focus in intervention.

[128] Scott W. henggeler, "A Consensus: Introduction to the APA Task Force Report on Innovative Models of Treatment and Service Delivery for Children, Adolescents, and Their Families," Journal of clinical Child Psychology 23 (1994): 3-6; Harry J. Aponte, John J. Zarski, Catherine Bixenstene, and Pamela Cibik, "Home/Community Based Service: A Two-Tier Approach," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 61 (1991): 403-8.

[129] Betty J. Blythe, Mary P. Salley, and Sriniki Jayaratne, "A Review of Intensive Family Preservation Service Research," Social Work Research 18 (1994): 213-24.

[130] Prinz and Miller (n. 125 above).

[131] Robert G. Wahler, Pamela G. Cartor, John Fleischman, and Warren Lambert, "The Impact of Synthesis Teaching and Parent Training with Mothers of Conduct-Disordered Children," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 21 (1993): 435-40; Robert G. Wahler and Jean Dumas, "Changing the Observational Parent-Training Effects," Parent Training: Foundations of Research and Practice, ed. Richard F. Dangel and Richard A. Polster (New York: Guilford, 1984), pp. 379-416.

[132] Elaine A. Blechman, Solving Behavior Problems at Home and at School (Champaign, Ill.: Research Press, 1985); Elaine A. Blechman, "Effective Communication: Enabling Multiproblem Families to Change,", ed. Cowan and Hetherington (n. 59 above), pp. 219-44.

[133] Mark R. Dadds and Therese A. McHugh, "Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Behavioral Family Therapy for Child Conduct Problem," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60 (1992): 252-59.

[134] See Wahler and Dumas, "Stimulus Class Determinants of Mother-Child Interchanges" (n. 56 above) and Webster-Stratton (n. 123 above) for studies of support and its effect on response to treatment.

[135]  Douglas L. Griest, Rex Forehand, Tim Rogers, Jeri Breiner, William Furey, and Connie A. Williams, "Effects of Parent Enhancement Therapy on the Treatment Outcome and Generalization of a Parent Training Program," Behaviour Research and Therapy 20 (1982): 429-36; Mary Lou Kelly, Lynn H. Embry, and Donald M. Bear, "Skills for Child Management and Family Support: Training Parents for Maintenance," Behavior Modification 3 (1979): 373-96.

[136] Mark R. Dadds, Matthew R. Sanders, B. C.Behrens, and J. E. James, "Marital Discord and Child Behavior Problem: A Description of Family Interactions During Treatment," Journal of clinical Child Psychology 16 ((1987): 192-203.

[137] Conger and Elder (n. 53 above).

[138] For the role of youth organizations, see Steven P. Schinke, Mario A. Orlandi, and Kristin C. Cole, "Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing Developments: Prevention Services for Youth at Risk," Journal of Community Psychology ("Programs for Change: Office for Substance Abuse Prevention Demonstration Models") 20 (1992): 118-28; Jane Quinn, "Positive Effects of Participation in Youth Organizations," Psychological Disturbances in Young People, ed. Michael Rutter (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 274-304. The latter also provides key principles for strengthening youth development through the youth organization sector. For promising youth developmental strategies with minority youth, including the role of monitoring, see Ronald B. Mincy, ed. Nurturing Young Black Males: Challenges to Agencies, Programs, and Social Policy (Washington, D. C.: Urban Institute, 1994).

[139] Coulton (n. 49 above). For example, the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative in Boston is a community organization that has worked to change the neighborhood context for children and families. See Jay Walljasper, "When Activists Win: The Renaisance of Dudley St.," Nation (March 3, 1997): 11-17. Social work's historic role in community organization is also relevant here. For example, see Jack Rothman, "Approaches to Community Intervention," Strategy of Community Organization, ed. J. Rothman, J. E. Tropman, and M. E. Cox (Itasca, Ill.: Peacock, 1995); Marie Overby Weil and Dorothy N. Gamble, "Community Practice Models," Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th ed. (Washington, D. C.: NASW Press, 1995), pp. 577-94.

[140] Coulton (n. 49 above).

[141] Furstenberg (n. 50 above).

[142] Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above).

[143] David P. Farrington, "Juvenile Delinquency," School Years, 2nd ed, ed.. J. C. Coleman (London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 122-63.

[144]  Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above).

[145] Wendy S. Groria, Corina Benjet, Carolyn Olson, and Nicholas H. Apostoleris, "Predictors of Parent Involvement in Children's Schoolong," Journal of Educational Psychology (in press); Susan Stone and Mary McKay, "Parent, School, Social Work Partnerships in Urban Communities" (Institute for Juvenile Research, Chicago, 1995).One of the barriers cited by parents for lack of school involvement in the inner-city community studied was the school's insensitivity to African-American families.

[146] Jennifer Clancy, "Ecological School Social Work: The Reality and the Vision," Social Work in Education 17 (1995): 40-47.

[147] Alan E. Kazdin, Karen Esveldt-Dawson, Nancy H. French, and Alan S. Unis, "Problem-Solving Skills Training and Relationship Therapy in the Treatment of Antisocial Child Behavior,", Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55 (1987): 76-85; John E. Lochman, Peter R. Burch, John F. Curry, and Louise B. Lampton, "Treatment and Generalization Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral and Goal-Setting Intervention with Aggressive Boys,"  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 52 (1984): 915-16; John E. Lochman and John F. Curry, "Effects of Social Problem-Solving Training and Self-Instruction Training with Aggressive Boys," Journal of clinical Child Psychology 15 (1986):159-64; John E. Lochman, Louise B. Lampton, Thomas C. Gemmer, and Steve R. Harris, "Teacher Consultation and Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention with Aggressive Boys," Psychology in School 26 (1989): 179-88; John E. Lochman, Louise B. Lampton, "Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Aggressive Boys: 7-Months Follow-up," Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy 5 (1988): 15-23.

[148] Nancy G. Guerra and Ronald Slaby, "Evaluative Factors in Social Problem Solving by Aggressive Boys," Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 17 (1989): 277-89; Nancy G. Guerra and Ronald Slaby, "Cognitive Mediators of Aggression in Adolescent Offender: Intervention," Developmental Psychology 26 (1990): 269-77. For a review of skills training, see J. M. Jenson and M. O. Howard, "Skills Deficits, Skills Training, and Delinquency," Children and Youth Services Review 12 (1990): 213-28.

[149] For example, see Dishion and Andrews (n. 96 above); Gary D. Gottfredson, "Peer Group Interventions to Reduce the Risk of Delinquent Behavior: A Selective Review and a New Evaluation," Criminology 25(1987): 671-714.

[150] Ronald J. Prinz, Elaine A. Blechman, and Jean E. Dumas, "An Evaluation of Peer Coping-Skills Training for Childhood Aggression," Journal of clinical Child Psychology 23 (1994):193-203.

[151] Alan E. Kazdin, Todd C. Siegel, and Debra Bass, "Cognitive Problem-Solving Skills Training and Parental Management Training in the Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60 (1992): 733-47.

[152] Arnold P. Goldstein, Barry Glick, Mary Jane Irwin, Claudia Pask-MacCartney, and Rubama Ibrahim, Reducing Delinquency: Intervention in the Community (New York: Pergamon, 1989)

[153] Barkley, ed. (n. 35 above); also see, in the same book, George J. DuPaul and Russell A. Barkley, "Medication Therapy," pp. 573-612.

[154] Ross D. Parke and N. P. Bhvnagri, "Parents as Managers of Children's Peer Relationships," Children's Social Networks and Social Supports, ed. Deborah Belle (New York: Wiley, 1989); Patterson, Reid, and Dishion (n. 8 above).

[155] Eric D. Poole and Robert M. Regoli, "Parental Support, Delinquent Friends, and Delinquency: A Test of Interaction Effects," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology70 (1980): 188-93.

[156] Mark Warr, "Parents, Peers, and Delinquency," Social Forces 72 (1993): 247-64.

[157] Thomas J. Dishion, Gerard R. Patterson, Mike Stoolmiller, and Martie Skinner, "Family, School and Behavioral Antecedents to Early Adolescent Involvement with Delinquent Peers,"Developmental Psychology27 (1991): 172-80; James Snyder, Thomas J. Dishion, Gerard R. Patterson, "Determinants and Consequences of Associating with Deviant Peers During Preadolescence and Adolescence," Journal of Early Adolescence 6 (1986): 29-43.

[158] One study on this issue suggests that for unsuspervised youth who are more susceptible to peer pressure, even monitoring via phone calls could reduce risk. See Laurence Steinberg, "Latchkey Children and Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: An Ecological Analysis," Developmental Psychology 22 (1986): 433-39.

[159] Henggeler and Borduin (n. 102 above)

[160] David G. Scherer, Michael J. Brondino, Scott W. Henggeler, Gary B. Melton, and J. H. Hanley, "Multisystemic Family Preservation Therapy: Preliminary Findings from a Study of Rural and Minority Serious Adolescent Offenders," Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 2, no. 4 (October 1994): 198-208; Charles M. Borduin, Barton J. Mann, Lynn T. Cone, Scott W. Henggeler, Bethany R. Fucci, David M. Blaske, and Robert A. Williams, "Multisystemic Treatment of Serious Juvenile Offenders: Long Term Prevention of Criminality and Violence," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63, no. 4 (August 1995): 569-78; Scott W. Henggeler, Douglas J. Rodick, Charles M. Borduin, Cyndy L. Hanson, Sylvia M. Watson, and John R. Urey, "Multisystemic Treatment of Juvenile Offenders: Effects on Adolescent Behavior and Family Interaction," Developmental Psychology22 (1986): 132-41; Scott W. Henggeler, Gary B. Melton, and Linda A. Smith, "Family Preservation Using Multisystemic Therapy: An Effective Alternative to Incarcerating Serious Juvenile Offenders," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60 (1992): 953-61; Scott W. Henggeler, Linda A. Smith, Sonja K. Schoenwald, and Jerome H. Hanley, "Family Preservation Using Multisystemic Treatment: Long-Term Follow-Up to a Clinical Trial with Serious Juvenile Offenders," Journal of Child and Family Studies 2 (1993): 283-93.

[161] See Borduin et al. (n. 160 above).

[162] Hawkins et al. (n. 87 above); O'Donnell, Hawkins, and Abbott (n. 88 above).

[163] Several multicomponent aggression prevention evaluations are currently under way, including the National Institute of Mental Health funded multi study, FAST TRACK; the National Institute of Mental Health funded Metropolitan Area Child Study in inner-city Chicago by Guerra and her colleagues. See Nancy G. Guerra, "Violence Prevention,", Preventive Medicine 23 (1994):661-64; and work by Tremblay and his colleagues in Montreal (Richard E. Tremblay, Frank Vitaro, Luice Bertrand, Marc LeBlanc, Helene Beauchesne, Helene Boileau, and Lucille David, " Parent and Child Training to Prevent Early Onset of Delinquency: The Montreal Longitudinal Experimental Study," McCord and Tremblay, eds. [n. 37 above]). The National Institute of Mental Health has also funded an aggression prevention center at the Oregon Social Learning Center, which will be testing a communitywide prevention program based on the coercion model (see Patterson, Reid, and Dishion [n. 8 above])。Sheppard G. Kellam, Lisa Werthamer-Larsson, Laurence J. Dolan, C. Hendricks Brown, Lawrence S. Maver, George W. Rebok, James C. Anthony, Jolene Laudolff, Gail Edelsohn, and Leonard Wheeler, "Developmental Epidemiologically-Based Prevention Traials: Baseline Modelling of Early Target Behaviors and Depressive Symptoms," American Journal of Community Psychology 19 (1991): 563-84.